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World History

Christine de Pizan is best known for her:
A: love affair with Hannibal
B: defense of the poor
C: written defense of women
D: long hair
C: written defense of women

Christian Humanists believed that:
A: the liberal studies enabled individuals to reach their potential
B: by studying biology, one could assure one’s salvation
C: God did not intend man to know more than the Bible
D: society should return to simpler ways
A: the liberal studies enabled individuals to reach their potential

The peace of Augsburg formally:
A: made Martin Luther patron saint of the Holy Roman Empire
B: accepted the division of Christianity in Germany
C: established the doctrine of Lutheranism
D: ended the war between France and Morocco
B: accepted the division of Christianity in Germany

Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales is an important work because:
A: Chaucer’s use of English vernacular was important to making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English language.
B: it was the first work in French to be published in England and France, opening up to England’s culture and language
c. it was the first collection of short stories by a single author to be published
d. his poignant portrayal of the English lower class evoked a change in English society
A: use of English vernacular was important to making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English language

High Renaissance in Italy is associated with which three artists?
a. Leonardo da Vinci, Jan van Eyck, and Albrecht Durer
b. Raphael, Donatello, and Filippo Brunelleschi
c. Masaccio, Donatello, and Filippo Brunelleschi
d. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
d. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo

The publication of Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses
a. was immediately seen as a threat by local businesses.
b. attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences.
c. was largely ignored until decades after Luther’s death.
d. became the central text for Anglicanism
b. attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences.

Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of Renaissance Italy’s social ideal because he was
a. a politician, and politicians were considered the pinnacle
b. wealthy and greatly improved his family’s status in society
c. a romantic poet who wrote insightful political treatises.
d. a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician
d. a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician

The first Protestant faith was
a. Calvinism
b. Zoroastrianism
c. Christian humanism
d. Lutheranism
d. Lutheranism

Who founded the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits?
a. Pope Paul III
b. the Council of Trent
c. Ignatius of Loyola
d. the Act of Supremacy
b. the Council of Trent

The best known of the all Christian humanists was
a. Desiderius Erasmus
b. Filippo Brunelleschi
c. Martin Luther
d. Albracht Durer
a. Desiderius Erasmus

conquered Milan after the death of the last Visconti ruler
Francesco Sforza

established the Church of England in 1534, married a lot
Henry VIII

his masterpiece in the Italian vernacular was the Divine Comedy
Dante

Flemish painter who was among the first to use oil paint
Jan van Eyck

German artist of the famous Adoration of the Magi
Albrecht Durer

the father of Italian Renaissance humanism
Petrarch

published the Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin

wrote the influential political book The Prince
Niccolo Machiavelli

began the Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther

introduced Protestant reforms in Zurich
Ulrich Zwingli

based on the study of the literary works of ancient Greece and Rome
humanism

major goal was the reform of the Catholic Church
Christian humanism

made Martin Luther an outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire
Edict of Worms

belief that God determined in advance who would be saved and damned
predestination

a release from all or part of the punishment for sin
indulgence

large agricultural estates
plantations

economic theory saying prosperity depends on amount of gold & silver
mercantilism

Spanish conquerors of the Americas
conquistadors

settlement in a new territory linked to a parent country by trade
colony

difference in value between imports and exports over time
balance of trade

remembered as the first person to sail around the world
Ferdinand Magellan

in October 1492, reached the Americas, where he explored Cuba’s coast
Christopher Columbus

the pattern of trade connecting Europe with the Americas
triangular trade

went around the Cape of Good Hope and across the Indian Ocean to India
Vasco da Gama

explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England
John Cabot

European expansion was driven by all of the following EXCEPT
a. wealth and trade.
b. fear of African empires.
c. ambition.
d. religious zeal.
c. ambition.

The Treaty of Tordesillas (the Line of Demarcation) in 1494 gave Spain control of almost all of
a. Africa.
b. Asia.
c. Europe.
d. the Americas.
d. the Americas.

38. All of the following countries had a controlling interest in the Americas EXCEPT
a. England.
b. Brazil.
c. Holland.
d. France.
b. Brazil.

39. Which of the following came from the Old World?
a. Horses.
b. Tomatoes.
c. Chocolate.
d. Pineapple.
a. Horses.

40.King Alfonso was the greatest king of
a. Brazil.
b. K(C)ongo
c. Benin.
d. Ibo.
b. K(C)ongo

Philip II of Spain was known as the
a. “Huguenot King.”
b. “Most Catholic King.”
c. “King of the World.”
d. “Papal King.”
b. “Most Catholic King.”

Protestants in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas were
a. Puritans.
b. Royalists.
c. Roundheads.
d. Cavaliers.
a. Puritans.

The work of William Shakespeare is perhaps the best example of
a. Elizabethan literature.
b. baroque literature.
c. Gothic literature.
d. Mannerist literature.
a. Elizabethan literature.

The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, and
a. gave Huguenots right to worship and all political privileges.
b. inflamed tensions between the Catholics and the Spanish.
c. declared all Huguenots to be enemies of the state.
d. served only to appease the pope.
a. gave Huguenots right to worship and all political privileges.

James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is
a. the belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the throne, and therefore was faultless.
b. the concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by the laws of the Church.
c. the theory that kings alone could know the mind of God and are responsible only to God.
d. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.
d. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.

Absolutism is
a. the practice by monarchs of undergoing daily absolution.
b. the belief that all citizens must conform to one religion.
c. the belief that baptism absolves all past and future sins.
d. a system of government in which a ruler holds total power.
d. a system of government in which a ruler holds total power.

Known for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions is the style of painting known as
a. gauche.
b. Realism.
c. baroque.
d. Mannerism.
c. baroque.

Seven percent of the total French population (but 40 to 50 percent of the nobility) were
a. Catholics.
b. Huguenots.
c. Canadians.
d. Jesuits.
b. Huguenots.

Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy by
a. promising cake to the masses. b. convincing the English to have a strong monarch.
c. slowly eroding the power of the nobility. d. taking away Huguenots’ rights and executing conspirators.
d. taking away Huguenots’ rights and executing conspirators.

Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome is an example of the work of
a. Artemesia Gentileschi.
b. Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
c. El Greco.
d. Bocelli.
b. Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

combative
militant

rising prices
inflation

a republic
commonwealth

a fleet of warships
armada

the Russian word for Caesar
czar

ascended the throne (of England) in 1558; intelligent, careful and self-confident, virgin
Elizabeth Tudor

a military genius; purged parliament of anyone who opposed him
Oliver Cromwell

King of France, long regarded as the best example of absolutism in the seventeenth century
Louis XIV

“the Terrible,” in the sixteenth century, became the first ruler to take the title of czar
Ivan IV

from the Romanov family; made Russia a great power; westernized Russia
Peter the Great

wrote perhaps 1,500 witty, charming, action-packed, and realistic plays (to please)
Lope de Vega

wrote Leviathan, a work on political thought which supported absolute power
Thomas Hobbes

the prince of Orange and leader of the United Provinces of the (Dutch) Netherlands
William the Silent

son of James I who tried to impose more ritual on the Church of England; executed
Charles I

a devout Catholic, made religion once more a cause of conflict in England; King of Scotland
James II

known as the Great Elector; built a large and efficient standing army for the Prussian state
Frederick William

in 1613, the new czar chosen by the national assembly, began the Romanov dynasty
Michael Romanov

he was mannerism’s high point; using elongated and contorted figures
El Greco

author of the novel Don Quixote, hailed as one of the greatest literary works of all time
Miguel de Cervantes

wrote Two Treatises of Government, which supported constitutional government
John Locke

mathematician who developed the idea of planets moving in ellipses
Johannes Kepler

argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa, or blank mind
John Locke

an Anglican minister who founded Methodism, a new religious movement
John Wesley

a renowned organist as well as composer, who spent his entire life in Germany
Johann Sebastian Bach

first European to (make regular observations of the heavens) study stars using a telescope
Galileo Galilei

developed a philosophy based on the idea “I think, therefore I am.”
Rene Descartes

greatest figure of the Enlightenment; well known for his criticism of Christianity
Voltaire

argued that, because women have reason, then they are entitled to the same rights as men
Mary Wollstonecraft

educated and cultured monarch who kept a strict watch over the Prussian bureaucracy
Frederick the Great

spent most of his adult life as musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes
Franz Joseph Haydn

Isaac Newton’s universal law of gravitation
a. was denounced by the Anglican Church as the devil’s work.
b. refuted Galileo Galilei’s theory of universal movement.
c. showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe.
d. was laughed at by Galileo, Kepler, and Copernicus.
c. showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe.

John Locke’s ideas suggest that people were
a. born either good or evil.
b. inherently self-centered.
c. naturally inclined to be stupid
d. molded by experience.
d. molded by experience.

In Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s concept of a social contract,
a. an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
b. punishments are not exercises in brutality.
c. the government should not interfere in economic matters.
d. women should be granted equal rights.
a. an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.

Who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism?
a. Chaucer
b. Francis Bacon
c. Rene Descartes
d. Robert Boyle
a. Chaucer

The first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe was
a. Ptolemy.
b. Nicholas Copernicus.
c. Johannes Kepler.
d. Martin Luther.
b. Nicholas Copernicus.

Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, believed scientists should
a. use inductive reasoning.
b. rely solely on the Bible.
c. use chance to study nature.
d. leave nature alone
a. use inductive reasoning.

To Voltaire and many other philosophes, the universe was
a. a divine creation.
b. unknowable at all.
c. constructed like a flower.
d. like a clock.
d. like a clock.

The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni, three of the world’s greatest operas, were composed by
a. Franz Joseph Hayden.
b. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
c. Johann Sebastian Bach.
d. George Frederick Handel
b. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

According to the Ptolemaic system, the
a. moon is the center of the universe. b. Earth revolves around the moon.
c. universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth at center.
d. Earth and moon revolve around Saturn, the sun god.
c. universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth at center.

Montesquieu’s most lasting contribution to political thought was his
a. system of checks and balances through separation of powers.
b. identification of the natural laws that govern society.
c. theory that government should interfere with religious matters.
d. idea that punishments should be brutal to be effective.
a. system of checks and balances through separation of powers.

states, in mathematical terms, that every object is attracted to every other object by a force
law of gravitation

rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers
enlightened absolutism

sun-centered conception of the universe
heliocentric

a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
scientific method

idea that the state should not interrupt the economy; let (people) do (what they want)”
laissez-faire

France’s chief tax
taille

radical political group
Jacobins

a sudden overthrow of the government
coup d’etat

prominent critic of Napoleon’s rule
Germaine de Stael

demanded equal political rights for women from the new French National Assembly
Olympe de Gouges

The term sans-culottes, meaning “without breeches,” implied that the members of this political group were
a. women, because they wore skirts. b. very poor and could not afford pants.
c. pacifists who did not use guns.
d. ordinary patriots without fine clothes.
d. ordinary patriots without fine clothes.

In his final battle, Napoleon was defeated by
a. the bitter Russian winter.
b. a French and Swiss army.
c. the Duke of Wellington.
d. the British navy.
c. the Duke of Wellington.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed
a. equal rights for all men, but no political rights for women.
b. and end to the monarchy and the National Assembly.
c. equal rights for all citizens, including equal rights for women.
d. an end to the National police force.
a. equal rights for all men, but no political rights for women.

The brutal head of the Committee of Public Safety was
a. Maximilien Robespierre.
b. Jean-Paul Marat.
c. Jean Valjean.
d. Victor Hugo
a. Maximilien Robespierre.

The French National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath, which was
a. a promise to destroy all of the nation’s tennis bracelets.
b. a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution.
c. an oath of loyalty to Jean Valjean, an outspoken lawyer that called for doing away with the relics of feudalism.
d. a promise not to rest until all members of the clergy were tried and executed.
b. a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution.

The Committee of Public Safety was given broad powers to
a. drain all the canals.
b. defend France from threats.
c. protect the Paris Commune.
d. restore order to Brussels.
b. defend France from threats.

To establish his consulate, Napoleon’s coup d’etat overthrew the
a. Directory.
b. city mayor.
c. British government.
d. Legislative Assembly.
a. Directory.

What were the two major reasons that Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed?
a. Napoleon’s greed and laziness within his bureaucracy
b. the survival of Britain and the force of nationalism
c. the resentment of the clergy and the plotting of the accountants
d. France’s weak economy and the drain of Napoleon’s wars
b. the survival of Britain and the force of nationalism

Which of France’s estates was NOT exempt from the taille?
a. the First Estate (clergy)
b. the Second Estate (nobility)
c. the Third Estate (commoners)
d. the Fourth Estate (elite)
b. the Second Estate (nobility)

The most important of the seven legal codes established by Napoleon was
a. the Religious Code
b. the Food Code
c. the Merchant Code
d. the Civil Code
d. the Civil Code

built the first paddle-wheel steamboat, the Clermont
Robert Fulton

appointed prime minister of Prussia and dominated all of northern Germany
Otto von Bismarck

reigned from 1837 to 1901, the longest in English history
Queen Victoria

the bridge between the classical and romantic periods in music
Ludwig von Beethoven

a dedicated Italian patriot who raised an army called Red Shirts
Giuseppe Garibaldi

British cotton manufacturer, utopian socialist, creator of New Harmony, Indiana
Robert Owen

attempted reforms in Russia (i.e. a new land system) but assassinated in 1881
Czar Alexander II

published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Charles Darwin

emperor (i.e. William I of the Second German Empire)
kaiser

laws that allowed large landowners to fence off common lands
enclosure movement

meeting of the great powers of Europe to arrange a final peace after Napoleon’s defeat
Congress of Vienna

an economic system based on industrial production
capitalism

political philosophy based on tradition and social stability
conservatism

a written document that guaranteed freedoms
Bill of Rights

38 independent states recognized in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
German Confederation

The belief that people should be as free as possible from government restraints is
a. Nationalism.
b. Monoculturalism.
c. Industrial capitalism.
d. Liberalism.
d. Liberalism.

According to Darwin, what was central to organic evolution?
a. natural selection.
b. genetic engineering.
c. natural production.
d. organic selection
a. natural selection.

Who developed a steam engine that could drive machinery?
a. James Hargreaves
b. Edmund Wilson
c. James Watt
d. Henry Cort
c. James Watt

According to the principle of intervention, the great powers of Europe had the right to
a. borrow food from one another in times of economic crisis within their countries.
b. send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power.
c. take one another’s territories with asking.
d. have representatives with voting privileges in one another’s government
b. send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power.

Who proposed the germ theory of disease?
a. Farhid Molotof
b. Michael Faraday
c. Louis Pasteur
d. Charles Darwin
c. Louis Pasteur

Prince Klemens von Metternich’s claim that he was guided by the principle of legitimacy meant
a. territories would only be returned to those who had a legitimate claim to them.
b. lawful monarchs from the royal families that had ruled before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power.
c. he was the legitimate and lawful heir to the throne of Denmark.
d. the old tensions that had existed prior to Napoleon would resurface.
a. territories would only be returned to those who had a legitimate claim to them.

What emphasized feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing?
a. Rationalism
b. Romanticism
c. Conservatism
d. Realpolitik
b. Romanticism

The British novelist Charles Dickens became very successful with his
a. romantic novels focusing on Britain’s pastoral life. b. Gothic novels of man’s attempt to dominate nature.
c. secular novels portraying criminals who were evil. d. realistic novels focusing on Britain’s lower/middle classes.
d. realistic novels focusing on Britain’s lower/middle classes.

The pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution gave rise to
a. the Iron Workers’ Revolt of 1886. b. the organization of charitable groups.
c. socialism (society owns and controls means of production)
d. a cry for rights for animals that worked in coal mines.
a. the Iron Workers’ Revolt of 1886.

What was a literary and visual arts movement that rejected romanticism?
a. Evolutionism
b. Nationalism
c. Secularism
d. Realism
d. Realism

created the light bulb in the U.S. which opened homes and cities to electric lights
Thomas Edison

appalled at the horrible conditions in industrial factories, wrote The Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx

transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle-class during the U.S. Civil War
Clara Barton

emperor of Germany from 1888 to 1918, dedicated to enhancing German power
William II

believed that the absolute power of the czars should be preserved in Russia
Nicholas II

French scientist who discovered radiation that apparently came from within the atom itself
Marie Curie

a doctor from Vienna who proposed theories about the nature of the human mind
Sigmund Freud

created a new style, cubism, using geometric designs to recreate reality in viewer’s mind
Pablo Picasso

invented the telephone in 1876 which began a revolution in communications
Alexander Graham Bell

British nurse whose efforts during the Crimean War transformed nursing
Florence Nightingale

worked as chancellor (prime minister) to keep Germany from becoming a democracy
Otto von Bismarck

emperor of Austria-Hungary who largely ignored the constitutional parliamentary system
Francis Joseph

tried to strengthen power of the monarchy to keep the Hawaiian islands under her people’s control
Queen Liliuokalani

pioneered building of American homes with long geometric lines and overhanging roofs
Frank Lloyd Wright

an impressionist painter who sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and sky
Claude Monet

Who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and the Sick in Hamburg, Germany?
a. Florence Nightingale
b. Amelia Earhart
c. Emmeline Pankhurst
d. Amalie Sieveking
d. Amalie Sieveking

Who sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901?
a. Alexander Graham Bell
b. Thomas Edison
c. Guglielmo Marconi
d. Joseph Swan
c. Guglielmo Marconi

Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters founded the
a. Women’s Social and Political Union.
b. Red Cross.
c. Women’s Christian Association.
d. Society for Women
a. Women’s Social and Political Union.

According to the special theory of relativity’s new view of the universe by Albert Einstein, a German-born scientist,
a. if all material things disappear, only other stuff would remain.
b. only space and time exist independently of experience.
c. time and space are not absolute but are relative to the observer.
d. matter and energy are two separate, distinct monads
c. time and space are not absolute but are relative to the observer.

Whose discovery of radium changed the world’s view of the atom?
a. Albert Einstein
b. Marie Curie
c. Friedrich von Bernhardi
d. Houston Chamberlain
b. Marie Curie

promoted Western learning and maintained friendly relations with major European powers
King Chulalongkorn

spent 30 years exploring unchartered regions of Central Africa (interior of the continent)
David Livingstone

in 1876 was bestowed the title of Empress of India; reign lasted 63 years and 7 months
Queen Victoria

a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
direct rule

allowed local rulers to maintain positions of authority
Protectorate

king of Thailand from 1851-1868, known to theatergoers as the king in The King and I
King Mongkut

Commodore of United States naval forces which defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
George Dewey

a young journalist (famous words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume.”) who explored the Congo
Henry Stanley

replacement of local rulers with officials from the mother country
indirect rule

extension of a nation’s power over other lands
imperialism

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