The CNS depressants include various prescription drugs referred to as
The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about
Inhalant use has traditionally been more common among
poor Hispanic and Native American youth.
What has kept paraldehyde from being widely used?
bad taste and odor
Among the barbiturates, when prescribing a sleeping pill (hypnotic), physicians would usually choose a
higher dose of a short-acting drug.
The modern era of abuse of volatile solvents by young people can be traced to a 1959 newspaper report of
Withdrawal from long-term use of sedative-hypnotic drugs is characterized by
anxiety, insomnia, nausea, seizures.
Sedative-hypnotic agents bind to which receptors in the brain?
Zolpidem (Ambien) is:
not a benzoiazepine chemically, but it has similar effects
The major advantage of the benzodiazepines over the barbiturates seems to be the
greater safety margin
The introduction of chlorpromazine in the U.S. in 1955 marked the last year in which
the population of mental hospitals increased.
The acceptance of the mood stabilizer _____________ was slowed by a series of overdose poisonings and by the fact that the drug is one of the basic elements and could not be patented.
The fastest, and probably the most effective, treatment for severe cases of depression is
ECT- Electroconvulsive Therapy
What is the average lag period for antidepressants to begin to be effective?
The FDA now requires a printed warning on several selective reuptake inhibitors because they increase the risk of
suicide in children and adolescents
A patient presents with these symptoms: irrational beliefs, incoherent speech, and a severe lack of emotional response. He has had these symptoms for over 9 months and they interfere with his social function. He would most likely be diagnosed with_______ and treated with__________.
One side effect common with the older antipsychotics, but less common with the newer ones, is
Bipolar disorder refers to
alternating periods of mania and depression.
The antipsychotic drugs that have been marketed in the past ten years, such as Zyprexa (olanzepine), are referred to as
Both depressed and manic symptoms appear in the general classification of
Growth retardation, small head circumference, small eyes, flattened bridge of the nose, and mental retardation are signs of
fetal alcohol syndrome
In studies relating homicide to alcohol use,
about half of all murderers and about half of all homicide victims had been drinking.
Which are signs of alcohol poisoning?
-breathing rate is slow or irregular
-skin is cold and clammy
-vomiting and then loss of consciousness
At a BAC of 0.08, the relative risk of being involved in a fatal automobile crash is about
three times as great as for a sober driver.
In a typical person, intoxication to the point of staggering and greatly impaired sensory perception occurs at about what BAC?
Which of these substances speeds up the absorption of alcohol?
Total per-capita consumption of alcohol
has declined considerably from its peak in 1981
Age 21 became the legal drinking age in all U.S. states in what year?
Although national prohibition of alcohol did reduce alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, it was repealed partly because of the growth of organized crime and partly because
of a desire to reduce the income tax
In most commercial beers sold in the U.S., the alcohol content is about
In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency declared that
secondhand smoke is a known carcinogen that increases lung cancer risk.
In July 2011, the nicotine vaccine NicVax was
found to be no better than placebo.
About 90 percent of the more than 40 million former smokers in the U.S. report that
they quit smoking without a treatment program
The psychological effect of cigarette smoking is
-Arousal, Acivation: a mild stimulant effect
-Calm and Relaxation: a mild antianxiety effect
*a combination of these
The major commercial species of Nicotiana that is grown for tobacco products is
Chewing was the most popular form of tobacco use until about 1900, but by 1920 the most popular form was
People who switch to low tar and nicotine brand cigarettes
Typically take more and deeper puffs and probably get no safety benefit
Per capita sales of cigarettes in the U.S. began to decline
after the 1964 Surgeon General’s Report
One big factor associated with lower rates of cigarette smoking among adults is
higher level of education.
Although lung cancer is not common, about _______ percent of all lung cancers occur in smokers.
Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day
doubles the risk of heart attack
Caffeine works in the brain by
blocking adenosine receptors
The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about _____ after drinking coffee.
In 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because
the syrup contained caffeine
According to current FDA rules on “cola” drinks,
they cannot contain more than 6 mg caffeine per ounce
Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?
The world’s greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in
_____________ is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it relaxes bronchial passages.
In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,
Americans drank approximately twice as many gallons of soft drinks as compared to coffee.
The largest exporters of coffee to the U.S. are
Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia
Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?
Dextromethorpan was not needed
Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?
There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _________, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations.
NSAID stands for
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)
antipyretic (reduces fever).
The only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is
What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?
Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as
If you buy a bottle of St. John’s wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg
total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients.
The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them.